Jump to content

This inquiry pertains to the elimination of an internal odour often associated with crayons.


blueWING007

Recommended Posts

Greetings, everyone.

I have published this on the MB World platform. However, I believe it is valuable to disseminate this information in this forum as well.

In summary, the olfactory sensation like that of crayons, which is often detected in models of this particular age, emanates from the foam material used under the floor carpets. The odour may be effectively eliminated by a two-step process including the removal of carpets for foam cleaning, as well as the use of ventilation and odor-masking techniques. The task at hand presents a moderate level of difficulty, ranging from 2 to 3 out of 5. It is essential to have access to outdoor space in order to facilitate the drying and airing process of the carpets. Additionally, it is crucial to allocate a substantial time frame of around 5 to 7 days to complete the various phases of drying.

I have been in possession of my 2009 S204 C180K for a duration of around five months. I am really enjoying the experience so far; nevertheless, the olfactory sensation emanating from the inside, reminiscent of crayons and exhibiting a faint mustiness, has been a source of annoyance for me. I prefer not to operate a vehicle that emits an odour reminiscent of an elderly individual's automobile. However, it should be noted that a C Class estate does not necessarily align with the preferences of a younger demographic either. I had reached a state of resignation and adaptation, however the persistent annoyance experienced when entering the vehicle compelled me to take action.

Upon doing extensive investigation in order to ascertain the origin, a plethora of diverse hypotheses and disinformation were encountered, although no conclusive resolution was found.

During the period of my wife's absence for a duration of one week, I undertook a personal investigation and successfully identified the origin of the matter at hand.

The olfactory sensation in question does not correspond to the odour emitted by a deteriorated air conditioning system, the waxy residue present around the central console, or the combustion of oil from the engine. Instead, it unequivocally originates from the foam padding or insulating material located under the floor carpets. Several individuals have also made similar observations; however, these findings are often obscured by a plethora of disinformation and erroneous hypotheses. Consequently, I deemed it necessary to conclusively address this matter and provide my own successful approach for its eradication. It has been a span of two weeks since I undertook the treatment and reinstallation of the carpets, and so far, the odour has not resurfaced.

The source of the odour was determined by a systematic examination of the interior, including olfactory assessment and disassembling various components. The attribution of the odour to either the wax component or the carpets themselves is comprehensible, given that the fragrance clearly permeates and transfers onto adjacent objects. Upon raising the floor carpets for both the driver and passenger areas and then seeing the scent emanating from the foam material, it becomes evident that this is undeniably the origin of the odour. The retention of odour in carpets may be attributed to either the adhesive properties of the glue used to affix foam to the carpet backing, which allows for seepage, or the natural degradation of the foam material over time. In any case, it is the foam itself that is responsible for retaining the odour. It is presumed that this foam material is used extensively inside the vehicle. Nevertheless, in my own vehicle, the odour was mostly concentrated in the footwells of the driver and front passenger areas. By just addressing these specific regions, it seems that the issue has been successfully resolved. There have been instances in Thailand when individuals have shared their experiences of totally removing the foam material from some objects and substituting it with sections of yoga mats. However, I personally found this approach to be very radical. Furthermore, individuals have been seen rearranging identical segments of carpet, only to discover that the newly arranged parts have a same odour.

Fortunately, the task of obtaining access to the foam and removing the carpet flooring is rather uncomplicated and follows a similar procedure on both sides.

Necessary tools for the task are a flat head screwdriver and a 13mm wrench or a ratchet wrench equipped with a 13mm socket.
The topic of discussion pertains to dish soap and laundry detergent.
Approximately one litre of white vinegar, namely the kind used for cleaning purposes rather than the variety often used as a condiment for chips.
A standard spray bottle and cleansing brush.
Approximately 1 kilogramme of bicarbonate of soda.
The addition of lemon juice is discretionary.
- Additional aromatic agents for olfactory perception (I used a combination of Chemical Guy's New Car Smell and Leather smell, along with a little amount of Febreeze odour eliminator).

During the cleaning process, it is possible to operate the vehicle without the flooring. However, it is necessary to reconnect the accelerator pedal after removing the carpets. The experience of driving might be quite unusual due to the absence of cushioning under the driver's foot.

The procedure:

To maximise the recline of the front seats, adjust them to their farthest position and proceed to remove the floor mats.

Subsequently, elevate the black plastic foot protectors located on the lower side of the entryway. One should be capable of manually retrieving these items, since they are just attached by means of clips. Initiating the process by pushing up one side initially facilitated their release. After lifting the fabric door seals, proceed to position them at the lower edge of the door opening and slightly up the front side.

To complete the task, it is necessary to detach the black plastic trim located on the inside wall of the footwell exterior side. The removal of the fabric seals would have resulted in the exposure of the clips pertaining to this panel. Utilise a little flat-head screwdriver to carefully insert it under the clips in order to elevate them slightly, hence facilitating the removal of the panel. It is important to note that these clips ought to remain affixed to the door frame and do not need removal.

In order to proceed, it will be necessary to detach the accelerator pedal located on the driver's side (while the task may first seem daunting, it is very straightforward). The attachment consists of two 13mm bolts that need removal, which I have stored in my cupholder compartment for safekeeping, as well as the disconnection of a little electrical connector. The process of removing the wire connector might be intricate. The attachment is secured by a little clip located on the upper side, which may be depressed with a small flat-head screwdriver, allowing for simultaneous removal. It required many attempts and considerable patience to navigate the awkwardness of the task and position oneself appropriately. However, once the method was discerned, the task was executed effortlessly. Exercise caution to avoid abruptly breaking or exerting excessive pressure on the plastic component responsible for securing the clip in its position. Upon removal, the pedal will detach effortlessly. There is no need to eliminate any more pedals.

5/ Remove the carpet flooring. To begin, detach the upper portions of the carpets by pulling them away from the rear section of the footwells and along the sides. The carpet is only secured under adjacent sections of plastic trim, necessitating its release. After extending to all edges, elevate the central portion of the carpet. The process of removing the foam from the metal floor may be quite intricate, since it is moulded in place. However, it is not adhered with glue, so it only requires a little amount of manipulation and manoeuvring to detach it. Once again, the act of removing might be seen as difficult, hence it is advisable to have patience.

After the removal of the carpets on both sides. If possible, it is recommended to use a vacuum to clean the bare footwell, specifically targeting any residual musty dust or debris that may have accumulated. Additionally, it is advisable to use a home spray surface cleaner to thoroughly wash down the footwell area.

In order to maintain cleanliness and hygiene, it is recommended to engage in the regular practise of washing both the carpet flooring and floor mats. Due of the absence of a garden, I resorted to using the shower head inside my bathtub for this purpose. The first step involves rinsing the surface to remove any surplus dust and dirt particles, followed by applying a thorough wash and scrubbing on both sides. I used a standard liquid laundry detergent in conjunction with a little quantity of dish soap, without any extravagant or specialty components. The removal of dirt and grime from surfaces, despite their apparent cleanliness, will be observable. Ensure to apply firm pressure when lathering the soap over the foam surface, taking care not to compromise its integrity. I encountered a few fissures in the foam of my item as well. However, I exercised caution throughout the washing process to prevent further widening of these fractures. It is worth noting that these cracks may be remedied by using gaffer tape after the foam has dried. After carefully washing both carpets, attempt to remove any extra water and place them outside with the foam side facing upwards. It is advisable to refrain from exposing the items to direct sunlight, since excessive heat may lead to undesirable consequences such as intensifying the odour and exacerbating the curing process. However, it is important to note that this recommendation is speculative and without empirical evidence. It is uncertain if such an occurrence would transpire. Fortunately, I had the advantage of possessing a balcony that was somewhat covered, which provided a suitable location for laying them out.

During the moist state, it is recommended to apply a spray of white vinegar, with the optional addition of lemon juice for increased acidity, onto both sides of the foam and carpets. White vinegar has been empirically shown to effectively neutralise unpleasant odours. Please be advised that at first application, this product may emit a powerful vinegar odour, which gradually dissipates as it undergoes the drying process. It is worth noting that this odor-absorbing characteristic effectively neutralises other odours present in the carpets. Similar to the process of using alcohol in culinary applications, the alcohol undergoes combustion and evaporates. Apply a generous amount of vinegar spray to all surfaces of the carpets and foam, ensuring thorough coverage, and proceed to massage or scrape the vinegar into the material. Place the foam in an upward-facing position once again. Next, evenly distribute a generous quantity of bicarbonate of soda over the foam surface. One should not hesitate to express oneself. Thoroughly manipulate the material inside all crevices and lower surfaces using manual dexterity, using the fingers as the primary tool for this task. (I will attempt to provide a visual representation of this action, however the current limitations of the forum prevent me from doing so at now.)

Step 9: Allow the item to sit undisturbed in order to facilitate the drying process. The duration required for the process might vary, often spanning at least one night, dependent upon the prevailing temperature and meteorological conditions. Bicarbonate of soda has the ability to absorb odours, with its effectiveness increasing proportionally to the duration of exposure.

After allowing sufficient time for the bicarbonate of soda to dry to an acceptable level, it may be removed by using a vacuum. It is not necessary for the bicarbonate of soda to be completely devoid of moisture at this point. After completion, it is possible to conduct a comprehensive olfactory evaluation to assess the quality of the outcome. During this phase, my sample exhibited some improvement; nonetheless, I detected residual odour in the denser foam regions. Consequently, I decided to repeat the vinegar/bicarbonate treatment, allowing it to air dry for an additional 24 hours.

Furthermore, after the first drying phase, it is advisable to turn the items over and proceed to perform the aforementioned procedure on the other side, namely the carpeted surface. One may effectively apply vinegar to this side in order to start the cleaning process.

12/ It is recommended to allow them to completely dry out on this occasion. In the event that some regions do not undergo the drying process, it is advisable to reposition them in order to prevent them from remaining in a flat posture on the floor. I discovered that the aforementioned action expedited the process. After the bicarbonate of soda has dried, it should be vacuumed up once again.

Next, do an additional olfactory examination. At this juncture, the foam exhibited a considerable improvement of at least 75%, necessitating a closer proximity of my olfactory organ to detect the same odour.

The subsequent phase involves allowing natural processes to occur and allowing the items to undergo aeration for a duration of several days. It is highly recommended to diligently adhere to this procedure, as it significantly impacts the outcome by facilitating complete drying of the carpets and foam. It is advisable to refrain from reintroducing moistened carpets into one's vehicle, as doing so may result in the emergence of an other malodorous scent, so necessitating more efforts to mitigate the unpleasant odour. Additionally, I would sometimes apply little sprays of white vinegar to enhance the neutralisation process. After a period of two days of being exposed to air and undergoing more drying, it can be said that the odour had diminished by around 90% and became difficult to detect even while in close proximity.

The last step, which may be considered discretionary, included the use of odor-masking or odor-eliminating sprays in order to prevent the recurrence of the unpleasant scent. To provide a candid assessment, it is my belief that none of these sprays can be deemed entirely permanent. However, I reasoned that if they provide a just 5% improvement, it would still result in a reduction of musty odour by 5%. A blend of Chemical Guy's New Car Smell and Leather Scent was prepared in a spray bottle. It is worth noting that neither fragrance perfectly replicates the desired scents: the new car smell exhibits a somewhat artificial quality, while the leather scent resembles that of an aged armchair rather than fresh leather. However, the combination of the two fragrances produces a scent reminiscent of newer leather. Additionally, I included a few sprays of Febreeze odour eliminator, a product that claims to effectively eradicate odours at a microscopic level. Given this promise, I decided to give it a try. However, the aroma of Febreeze was quite unpleasant and overpowering. Consequently, I included just a minute quantity of it into the mixture to ensure that its presence could not be detected by olfactory means. I ensured thorough penetration of the spray odours into the foam material, so beyond just superficial treatment.

I proceeded to allow the substance to undergo an additional 24-hour drying period, in order to facilitate the dissipation of the strong odours emitted by the spray upon first release from its container.

During the aforementioned activities, I concurrently used the same procedure to the floor mats, which had evidently assimilated a certain degree of the stale odour over a period of time.

After allowing sufficient time for complete drying, I proceeded to vacuum the carpets and foam once more, aiming to eliminate any remaining traces of bicarbonate of soda or dust. Subsequently, I reinserted the carpets and floor mats back into the vehicle.

After successfully installing the down and back components in the car and reassembling the remaining trim, I proceeded to lightly spray them with the fragrance mixture I had prepared. Additionally, as an optional measure, I activated a Meguiar's odour eliminator bomb with a new car aroma inside the vehicle. To be honest, I am somewhat remorseful about the recent action taken, since the explosive device in question did not possess a very pleasant fragrance. The olfactory experience of the fragrance is excessively reminiscent of vanilla in comparison to the authentic aroma of a newly manufactured automobile. I managed to slightly open the windows and using an inside trim finisher to mitigate the intensity of the odour, while also wiping the seat vinyl and interior plastics.

The task has been completed.

As per my observations, it is evident that the odour has dissipated over a two-week period subsequent to the treatment. The underlying principle guiding my approach was that even a 50% reduction would constitute a significant improvement, perhaps requiring very little maintenance efforts to sustain. Thus far, it can be said that the odour has been eliminated to a significant extent, ranging from 90 to 100%.

It is very probable that there are further areas inside the vehicle where the foam has not been treated or cleaned. It can be inferred that the rear passenger footwell likely has some untreated foam, and it is known that there is untreated foam right under the front seats. However, the decision was made not to remove the front seats for further examination. If one wants to conduct a more comprehensive analysis, it would be prudent to consider addressing these aforementioned areas as well.

I will continue to provide updates to other individuals on the potential recurrence of the odour, although, at now, the situation seems to be satisfactory.

I trust that this information will be beneficial to anybody seeking a resolution to the problem at hand.

 

Link to comment
Share on other sites

The malodorous odour to which you allude is a byproduct of industrial processes, and its elimination is not feasible.
The presence of plastic-rubber components in any vehicle might result in an odour.
Have you conducted a comparative analysis of the olfactory characteristics of a new car's interior scent and those of your own vehicle?
Is there a difference?

There is a lack of odourless vehicles, since all objects possess a distinct scent, even individuals who may emit an unpleasant odour after a hard day of work.

When engaging the services of an automotive detailer, it is advisable to request that they do a thorough inspection of your vehicle. By doing so, the detailer will be able to identify any potential issues or irregularities and provide appropriate recommendations for remedial action.
Autosmart has a fragrance machine that provides a variety of aromas. Personally, I am fond of the bubblegum fragrance; yet, I am hesitant to use it inside my vehicle due to concerns of experiencing persistent headaches and jaw discomfort resulting from the continuous simulation of chewing bubblegum.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Thank you for your prompt reply. However, it seems that you may not have thoroughly reviewed the content of my first message.

The olfactory perception emanates from the maturation process of the foam material located under the footwell carpets, rather than originating from the plastics or rubber components. Comparisons with a new automobile are not feasible due to the considerable age of the model under consideration, which spans around 12-14 years. Furthermore, it seems that the materials used in the current model are no longer utilised.

The user's text does not provide any information to be rewritten in an academic manner.I have successfully eliminated the odour via the aforementioned approach. Contrary to your aforementioned suggestion, I did not only conceal the odour. This is likely the reason why it seems like you have made attempts in the past that were unsuccessful. The elimination of an odour cannot be achieved only by masking it without addressing the underlying cause. I used a method using home goods renowned for their ability to neutralise odours and absorb substances.

Once again, the reason for my posting of this procedure is just this.

There are two primary reasons for my assertion. Firstly, personal experience has shown the effectiveness of this approach. Secondly, it is worth noting that a considerable number of individuals disseminate inaccurate information by relying just on conjecture, rather than engaging in a comprehensive examination and resolution process involving the specific vehicle under consideration.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I have read your whole article.

The age of my vehicle much surpasses that of yours, and I have not undertaken any measures to conceal any odours.
I attempted to use the Autosmart odour machine, opting for the neutral cartridge to get a fragrance that lacked any discernible scent.

There is a presence of ageing must inside the air conditioning (AC) vents, which I want to eliminate using an AC cleaning solvent.
This behaviour is often seen in vintage automobiles and Mercedes-Benz vehicles.

In addition to exhibiting signs of aged foam, my carpets do not possess the same olfactory characteristics as yours.
Mercedes-Benz used many technological approaches throughout their range of automobile models.

The optimal course of action is to seek guidance from a knowledgeable professional who can provide you with appropriate instructions.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

To be honest, I am uncertain about what information to provide you with, and I am curious as to why you have decided to engage in a debate with me over this matter.

The individual is engaging in a counterargument over a specific aspect of an automobile, acknowledging their lack of ownership, absence of personal encounter with the issue, and absence of experimentation with potential solutions.

As previously elucidated in the first discourse, I have already executed the aforementioned procedure and it yielded successful outcomes. The issue pertaining to the crayon-like odour, which has been extensively reported in relation to the W204, has been successfully eliminated from my vehicle. Hence, there is no need for me to seek guidance from a subject matter specialist on the matter.
I am sharing this information for the benefit of others, as it presents an effective solution to the problem using inexpensive household items and a moderate amount of effort. This approach offers a cost-effective alternative to seeking professional detailing services, which, it should be noted, many other owners of W204 vehicles have previously pursued at considerable expense without achieving a resolution, often due to misdiagnosis even by trained experts.

The acceptance or rejection of my statement is at your discretion.

However, I am willing to address any inquiries about the procedural aspects that those seeking to resolve a similar issue may possess. After many weeks have elapsed, the odour remains absent.

The Autosmart odour machine may not effectively eliminate the 'factory' chemical scents, since its primary function is to target bacteria-induced odours such those caused by dogs, smoking, and food. These devices operate by smothering and eradicating the microorganisms responsible for the odours. Furthermore, the fragrance, although being manufactured to possess a "neutral" scent, functions as an additional layer of masking agent.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I comprehend the exertions you had to do in order to address this olfactory issue. I am not acquainted with the olfactory characteristics associated with the scent of crayons; nevertheless, I can attest to the fact that we previously acquired an SLK vehicle that had been exposed to tobacco smoke. As an individual who has previously engaged in smoking behaviour but now has contradictory views, I have a strong aversion against occupying vehicles that exhibit residual tobacco odours. Consequently, I found myself much perturbed upon discovering that the vehicle we had inspected had been exposed to such an environment, as shown by the open roof during our visitation. In order to thoroughly cleanse, sanitise, and eliminate any unpleasant odours, I undertook the task of removing a significant portion of the decorative mouldings and inside fabric covering, often referred to as the trim and headlining.

I used two distinct applications of a chemical product known as 'air vidox' in an attempt to eliminate the smoke odour from the vehicle. Regrettably, despite my efforts, the automobile continued to retain a residual scent reminiscent of a chlorinated swimming pool, and the smoke odour persisted even after the second treatment. I consistently ensured that the roof was left exposed whenever possible, and diligently performed repeated cleaning tasks on it. The vehicle in question was recently exchanged over the last month, after a period of ownership spanning four years. Despite this, there were some instances when a faint odour was still perceptible. Consequently, I can empathise with your desire to eliminate any lingering smells from an automobile. I fail to get the rationale of engaging in such arguments. As a newcomer to this community, I have encountered instances when some individuals exhibit a rather direct manner in their posts. However, overall, the majority of participants have shown a high degree of friendliness. Therefore, I encourage you to persist in your engagement and I am certain that other members will appreciate your contribution.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

If it is determined that the design issue in question resulted from the use of malodorous foam or adhesive materials by MB, it would have been appropriate for MB to initiate product recalls for the W204 model, since owners would likely have expressed their dissatisfaction.
Have any recalls been made?

If the issue has been resolved and there are no longer any unpleasant odours in the vehicle, then that is the primary concern.
You have effectively addressed a task that should have been first attended to by MB.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

The subject matter is very intriguing. I have lately divested myself of my 2009 CLK automobile. However, I am familiar with the same olfactory sensation to which you are referring. In my recollection, the 2003 model we previously had did not have such a pronounced aroma, although it has long since departed from our possession.

On a particular occasion, I initiated a telephone conversation with my spouse when she was engaged in a specific activity, during which she had recently offered transportation to an acquaintance. The acquaintance, upon entering the vehicle, expressed admiration for its aesthetic qualities, but also inquired about a peculiar scent reminiscent of crayons. That accurately encapsulated the concept. I had previously been unable to discern the underlying reason, but upon her utterance, I immediately recognised the connection with crayons. The user's response is brief and lacks academic tone. The experience was not unfavourable, and I had become used to it, but I am curious to ascertain the underlying cause. Several acquaintances made comments such as "It possesses the distinct aroma of a Mercedes" because they had comparable C&E courses, implying the utilisation of same resources.
I can verify that there is a discernible difference in the olfactory perception of the inside of My S202 and our W166 vehicles compared to the CLK models. This disparity may be attributed to variances in both the age and composition of the materials used in their construction.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I have a personal inclination for the olfactory perception of crayons.  The phenomenon of a very fragrant substance being capable of assimilating different odours is intriguing. Undoubtedly, a scientific rationale exists to explain this occurrence, which may be explored with a more inquisitive mindset.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

In China, it has been reported that in the past, individuals expressed concerns over the adverse impact on their health. Nevertheless, MB refuted any potential association with health issues, and there is no apparent evidence of such symptoms being reported by individuals in this context, including headaches, dizziness, or compromised immune system. I have not had any of the aforementioned symptoms subsequent to my ownership of the vehicle for a duration of five months.

It is uncertain if the issue seen in China was caused by the same problem or used the same materials as the foam found in European models. The presence of foam in European vehicles is reportedly attributed to stringent German production regulations, since similar odours have been reported in some Volkswagen and BMW cars from the same time period. The automobiles manufactured in China may have used disparate materials.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

As previously said, I am fulfilling my commitment to provide an update on this discussion thread. After many months have elapsed after the treatment of the carpets and foam, it can be seen that the lingering odour like that of crayons has not completely dissipated. However, there has been a notable improvement in the intensity of the scent compared to its initial state.

One notable difference is the elimination of the somewhat musty odour that was previously present, perhaps attributed to the aged foam.

Although a fraction of the faint odour reminiscent of crayons has resurfaced, it now emanates as a more pristine and contemporary scent. The majority of those who have gained access have said that the scent resembles that of a recently manufactured automobile.

I store my vehicle in a secured residential parking facility, which allows me to slightly open the windows and maintain proper ventilation. The olfactory sensation reminiscent of crayons reemerges to a little extent when the windows are kept shut.

However, I have successfully resolved this issue, since the bothersome factor was mostly attributed to the musty quality of the odour. Once again, it seems that other W204 owners have already discussed this matter extensively. Therefore, I am putting my inquiry here in search of a conclusive response.

Overall, I am really satisfied with the automobile. The vehicle has accumulated 120,000 miles and, in some respects, it maintains a condition akin to that of a new vehicle, but with a few minor contemporary enhancements such as an Android screen, a backup camera, and phone charging capabilities.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

image.thumb.png.5d6c9af114c270a161b66e2eefe11af9.png

The CL vehicle I acquired had been previously owned by an individual who engaged in smoking activities, as indicated by a burn mark that I had since remedied. Despite my inability to detect any residual smoke odour, I wanted to ascertain its complete absence with absolute certainty. I employed one of these devices. The process involves combining two containers of powdered substances, adding 60 millilitres of water, and allowing the resulting mixture to generate Chlorine gas, which then fills the inside space of an automobile. The product is intended to effectively eliminate odours in vehicles, but leaving a residual aroma reminiscent of a swimming pool for a brief period of time. It may be advantageous to consider attempting the task at a cost of £15.

I inadvertently left the item in my vehicle for the whole of the night.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I like the distinction made between the concepts of 'masking' and 'eradicating', which may be likened to addressing symptoms rather than addressing the root cause.
However, while purchasing a pre-owned Mk1 MX-5, it was evident that the vehicle emitted a strong odour of cigar smoke. This was likely due to the previous owner, who had first purchased the car new and then used it for commuting purposes to Greece, consistently smoking a large cigar with the vehicle's hood up during the whole journey. Consequently, all of the fabric elements, including the roof, had absorbed the smoke. During a period of limited access to professional or educated amateur guidance for an extended duration, I made the decision to position two incense burners on a steel tray located in the footwells of both the passenger and driver sides of the vehicle. The aforementioned behaviour may be characterised as both foolish and dangerous. However, it is worth noting that the scent of cigars dissipated permanently, and the lingering aroma of incense inside the vehicle ceased to exist as well. Did the burners eliminate or conceal?

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

×
×
  • Create New...